What Voyageurs Wore
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Art. I. What Voyageurs Wore : Voyageur Clothing from Head to Toe, 1774-1821 by Angela Gottfred.

'In May each year we would see numbers of young men, each one with his bag, containing a few of the most necessary articles of clothing on his back, with a paddle & 'setting pole' in his hand...embarking in their bark canoes...' Montreal, 1802 [1]

Introduction

There is surprisingly little detailed information available to reenactors on voyageurs' clothing. This has sometimes led to some wild theories, such as the one which suggested that voyageurs wore silk shirts. In this article, I will give a thorough historical overview of voyageurs' clothing from head to toe, with an eye to providing more accurate and varied voyageur impressions. Documentation for voyageur clothing in this article comes from fur trade inventories, journals, memoirs, and artwork, and focuses on the 1774-1821 period. Major changes in fashion during this period are also mentioned, when they are relevant.

Voyageur Equipments

Voyageurs were free to wear what they wished, but by 1801 almost all their clothing came from a single source— their employers. North West Company voyageurs received clothing as part of their employment contract, in addition to their regular wages. (Sometimes other items, such as tobacco, knives, beads, and vermilion, were also included in these 'equipments'.) In 1801, pork-eaters (summer voyageurs) received one blanket, one shirt, and one pair of trousers. Hivernants, who were year-round employees, got two blankets, two shirts, two pairs of trousers, and two handkerchiefs [2]. Five years later, the company-supplied equipments changed slightly. Voyageurs wintering along the Saskatchewan and lower North Saskatchewan rivers got one 3-point blanket, one 2½-point blanket, two pairs of leggings, two shirts, and two braillets (breechcloths). In addition to this, two handkerchiefs were given to men wintering in the Athabasca district, in the Rocky Mountains, along the English (Churchill) River, Rat River, and upper North Saskatchewan River [3]. Voyageurs could also buy clothing from their employers or fellow voyageurs. When the Hudson's Bay Company began hiring voyageurs extensively, around 1820, it too supplied them with clothing.

The incredible mobility of the voyageurs probably gave voyageur clothing some uniformity, since each summer voyageurs met at a rendezvous. There they would see what other voyageurs from all across the Northwest were wearing. A new fashion, such as wearing breechcloths and leggins instead of trousers, could quickly spread throughout the company, rather than remaining a costume specific to voyageurs from certain fur posts. Also, as the fur trade expanded ever-westward, voyageurs frequently were posted to new districts, so there was likely little chance for regional voyageur costumes to be established.

Hats and Caps

Most people have heard about the voyageurs' long red toque. What does the historic record say about it? Alexander Henry the Elder's memoirs described voyageurs as wearing 'a large, red, milled worsted cap' in 1761 [4]. David Thompson also noted that in 1786 voyageurs wore 'long red or blue caps, half of which are hung down the head' [5]. A voyageur wearing a long blue cap similar to those described by Thompson is depicted in an 1821 painting by John Halkett [6] ; the top half flops over so that the end of the toque is about level with the man's forehead. A number of other voyageurs in the same canoe wear slightly different toques. These toques fit closely to the head, and at the very top of the toque, the artist shows a little 'knob'. The shape of this knob suggests to me that the body of these toques may have been shaped like a tube, rather than a cone or bowl, and that the tube was closed near the end by gathering it shut, producing a small knob-like ruffle of fabric. Three of these 'knobbed' toques are blue, and two are white.

Some toques were brought into the Northwest by the NWC and HBC, and turn up on various inventory lists and in journals from 1786 onwards, described as 'milled caps' [9], 'grey milled caps', 'worsted caps', 'grey worsted caps' and 'scarlet worsted caps' [10]. 'Milling' or 'fulling' is a kind of controlled shrinking which causes the cloth to get thicker. It was used on knit Monmouth caps in 17th Century England and on wool cloth and blankets in the 18th century [11].

Sometimes summer caps were improvised from handkerchiefs. They were folded so as to cover the top of the head and tied together on the forehead ('cleaning lady' style) [12], or made into a headband tied with a large bow in front [13].

Ross Cox noted that voyageurs also wore fur caps ; unfortunately I could find no information on what these caps looked like [14].

Voyageurs wore felt hats, too, and they are in NWC journals and inventories from a fairly early date. Two cased (lined) hats were among trade goods left at NWC's Isle-à-la-Crosse post on June 4, 1786 [15]. Duncan McGillivray noted that he had 'a few cases of knives & hats' at Fort George on the North Saskatchewan River in 1794 [16].

Artists portrayed voyageurs in crisp black top hats and battered brown top hats [18]. Other styles of felt hats were also worn. A Rindisbacher painting shows one voyageur wearing a battered brown hat with a tapered crown shaped like an upside-down flowerpot [19]. The surviving Beaver Club medals show voyageurs wearing hats with round crowns and broad flat brims [20]. An 1821 painting also shows a voyageur wearing a flat-crowned black hat with a wide brim [21].

Sometimes the hats were decorated. In 1806, a list of Rocky Mountain House trade goods included three 'laced' hats (trimmed with gold or silver 'lace' or military braid) and two 'bound' hats [22]. An 1807 and 1808 order form for the Columbia Department of the NWC also included 'velvet bound hats' [23]. Perhaps these were felt hats with the edges of the brims covered or trimmed with velvet. Gabriel Franchère described how his Pacific Fur Company voyageurs wore hats 'decorated with parti-colored ribbons and feathers' as they descended the Hudson River in 1810 [24]. In 1827, voyageurs were described as 'each with a red feather in his hat' [25], and sometime later, voyageurs were described as wearing 'ostrich feathers in their hats...' [26] Ostrich feathers and red feathers 'to go round hats' also crop up in fur trade inventory lists and other sources [27].

'Jockey caps' are also on inventory lists. A jockey cap was probably a felt hat very similar in shape to a modern jockey's cap (shaped like a baseball cap). Over the winter of 1810-1811, David Thompson took six jockey caps and two hats over the Athabasca Pass [28]. The HBC's George Simpson ordered 54 jockey caps for the 1821-1822 outfit for the Athabasca district [29]. Simpson's order also included 28 beaver hats, 40 common hats, 10 hats for children, 10 hats for youths, 15 dozen hat bands and tassels, 9 dozen lawn hat covers, and 11 1/2 dozen silk hat covers [30].

Hair

Most voyageurs had long hair. In 1807, NWC clerk Willard F. Wentzel noted that voyageurs 'wear their hair long behind and short before' [31]. That some year, John Lambert described how Quebec farmers wore their hair 'tied in a thick long queue behind, with an eelskin ; and on each side of his face a few straight locks hang down like what are vulgarly called ‘rat's tails’ [32].' George Heriot's paintings of Lower Canada around 1800 show most men wearing loose hair down to their shoulder blades [33]. In 1821, Arctic explorer George Back noted that the voyageurs' hair was 'always long' [34], and many years later, surveyor J. Bigsby described voyageurs as 'sinister-looking long-haired men' [35]. A watercolor sketch of voyageurs in a Montreal canoe from the early 1820's shows them wearing hair in a variety of lengths : shoulder-length, collar-length, and even trimmed short with sideburns [36].

What about facial hair? I haven't found any evidence that voyageurs wore beards or mustaches in the 1774-1821 period. As a rule, Europeans were clean-shaven during this time frame, although a few non-conformists seem to have worn pencil-thin mustaches. Only one man, in all the North American artworks consulted for this article, is wearing a beard or mustache [37].

I have a strong suspicion that voyageurs did not shave daily. They may not even have shaved weekly, but they did put in an effort to shave and freshen up before they visited fur posts on their travels to and from the summer rendezvous.

Many men did wear sideburns during this period. I haven't studied sideburn styles in detail, but in general, sideburns were generally fairly narrow, and could end at the earlobe level or extend all the way down to the chin line.

Handkerchiefs & Cravats

Handkerchiefs made up a part of the voyageurs' standard NWC-supplied equipment. As noted above, they were sometimes used as caps or headbands. They were doubtless also regularly used for wiping foreheads, blowing noses, and trickling cold water down the neck on a hot day. It's also possible that they were used in place of a neckcloth such as a cravat or stock.

Neckcloths were not routinely worn by voyageurs, however. In the War of 1812, members of the Canadian Corps of Voyageurs 'could not be got to wear stocks ; and such as did not use cravats came on parade with naked necks' [38]. Cox also noted that 'in summer season [voyageurs'] necks are generally exposed' [39].

Trade goods in the Rocky Mountains from 1806 to 1811 included cotton and silk handkerchiefs [40]. By 1821, George Simpson was ordering handkerchiefs by the dozen for the Athabasca district. His order included Bandanna handkerchiefs, black Barcelona handkerchiefs, Britannia cotton handkerchiefs, chintz handkerchiefs, Romalls, and spotted cotton handkerchiefs, as well as fancy silk bandannas and cotton handkerchiefs [41]. (See 'Men's Neck Cloths and Handkerchiefs', in NWJ Vol. XI, pp. 22-28 for more information.)

Shirts

Shirts were supplied to voyageurs by the NWC as part of their employment contract. A large variety of shirts were available, and this variety seems to have increased with time. Both white shirts and calico shirts were in NWC inventories as early as 1786 [42]. In 1797, NWC wintering partner Charles Chaboillez received one white ruffled shirt at Roy's Fort [43]. In 1799, a voyageur near Fort Chipewyan was buried in a coarse linen shirt [44]. By 1806, a list of trade goods available from Rocky Mountain House included a calico shirt, a linen shirt, and one small cotton shirt [45]. David Thompson's 1807 & 1808 order for the NWC's Columbia Department included cotton and flannel shirts [46]. A few years later, Thompson took fifteen men's cotton shirts, six fine cotton shirts, and three fine calico shirts over the Athabasca Pass [47]. By 1814, there were six different kinds of shirt available at Fort George (formerly Astoria) : common cotton shirts, fine cotton shirts, common white flannel shirts, fine white flannel shirts, fine red flannel shirts, and gingham shirts [48]. A description of voyageurs in 1817 suggests that they preferred striped cotton shirts [49]. By the time George Simpson was placing his order for the 1821-1822 Athabasca outfit of HBC, he was in a position to request calico shirts in four different sizes (adults, youths, boys, and infants), as well as checked shirts, cotton shirts, white flannel shirts, red flannel shirts, and fine white shirts [50].

The cut of voyageurs' shirts shown in period art is consistent with the styles of shirts described in the article 'Making a man's shirt' (in Northwest Journal vol. I, pp. 9-14)– a pullover shirt with short front slit going down the front of the neck, a collar, armpit gussets, and long sleeves that dropped at the shoulders. White shirts were depicted most often. Occasionally ruffled neck slits are shown with these shirts. Striped shirts are shown almost as frequently as white shirts ; the stripes usually ran down the sleeve, from shoulder to wrist, but occasionally circled around the sleeve instead. Stripes on the collar could go either direction. Artists portrayed a wide variety of stripes : white cloth with narrow red stripes, white with alternating broad and narrow dark blue stripes, white with broad light blue stripes, white with narrow blue stripes, and printed multicolored, patterned stripes.

I found no evidence to suggest that voyageurs regularly went bare-chested. Shirts provided valuable protection from the sun and mosquitoes that today comes from a bottle of lotion.

Waistcoats & Vests

A voyageur's wardrobe could include a vest or waistcoat, although it was probably uncommon [51]. I examined nineteen different North West Company inventory lists which included very common items of clothing such as shirts, capots, and trousers, and did not find waistcoats or vests on any of them. Waistcoats and vests were not included on the standard NWC-issued voyageur 'equipment'. The evidence that voyageurs did wear them comes instead from artwork and fur traders' journals and memoirs.

'Swans down Vests' were described as being part of 'Canadian Voyageurs clothing' in 1805 by Charles McKenzie [52]. Around 1807, one of David Thompson's voyageurs received a red striped vest [53]. A sketch from 1823 shows a voyageur wearing a vest with narrow horizontal stripes [54]. Artists also portrayed voyageurs in vests of light blue, dark bluish-grey, and red [55]. One vest had a bow at the small of the back to adjust the fit. By 1820, George Simpson was ordering a wide variety of waistcoats for the HBC's Athabasca district : buff waistcoats, drab scarlet waistcoats, drab jean waistcoats, white jean waistcoats, light & olive cord waistcoats, quilting waistcoats, and swansdown waistcoats [56].

There was a major change in the styles of waistcoats during the 1774-1821 period. In 1774, waistcoats generally extended well past the waist, fit closely around the neck, and had fancy pocket flaps. Starting around 1783, fashionable waistcoats started to become waist-length, with a tall collar or lapels. This style seems to have been fairly well-established by about 1805. For more information on historic vests and waistcoats, see the article 'Making a man's waistcoat. c. 1799', in Northwest Journal vol. III, pp. 27-28.

Jackets

Voyageurs sometimes wore jackets, although, like waistcoats, they rarely show up on NWC inventories. In 1804, voyageurs who had been fighting ended up with 'torn Jackets' [57]. The man in John Lambert's 1806 portrait of 'Habitants in their Summer Dress' wears a blue hip-length jacket with buttons, pockets, and a collar [58]. Charles McKenzie mentioned that corduroy jackets were worn by voyageurs [59]. In 1808, David Thompson gave one of his voyageurs a 'SS [swanskin?] jacket' [60]. Some men in Halkett's 'Canot de Maitre' sketch are wearing blue and brown jackets or coats. A wide variety of jackets and coatees were ordered by George Simpson for the 1821-1822 Athabasca outfit of HBC : mixed cloth coatees, drab jean coatees, buff Nankeen jackets, drab nankeen jackets, blue superfine cloth jackets, drab cord jackets, and olive cord jackets [61].

Capots & Coats

Capots were the usual coat worn by voyageurs. The knee-length hooded capot was usually made from 'molton' (Melton cloth) or a blanket [62], and was closed with a sash instead of buttons. Voyageurs might sew capots for themselves when winter began [63] or be provided with a capot from the company's trade goods [64]. Many paintings show voyageurs wearing blue or white capots [65]. Grey was also a common colour [66].

Some fashionable voyageurs wore a greatcoat instead of a capot. Greatcoats are distinguished from capots by their fashionable lapels and more tailored fit [67]. For more detailed information on capots, see 'Capots, with some Side Lights on Chiefs' Coats & Blankets, 1774-1821', in Northwest Journal, vol. XIII, pp. 25-41

Mittens and Gloves

Mittens were often mentioned in fur trade journals [68]. Details of their construction are scarce, but they were usually made from leather and lined with rabbit fur [69,70].

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the word 'mitten' seems to have been used both for mittens and for fingerless gloves [71]. Two sketches of winter scenes, made in the Northwest in 1806 and 1821, both clearly show mittens, and not fingerless gloves, being worn [72]. In his memoirs, David Thompson said that gloves were 'worse than useless' for hunting in the bitter cold of winter [73]. I haven't seen mittens or gloves on any inventory of trade goods, suggesting that mittens were made in the Northwest rather than supplied from Montreal.

Sashes, Ceintures Flechées, Belts, & Suspenders

Sashes seem to have been introduced to the fur trade around 1797 [74]. The voyageurs' finger-woven wool sash was also called a ceinture, ceinture flechée, or a belt (usually a 'worsted belt' or 'Canadian belt') [75]. Ross Cox noted that 'They [voyageurs] all wear belts of variegated worsted, from which their knives, smoking-bags, &c., are suspended' [76]. Sashes are found on inventory lists [77] and in paintings of voyageurs, where they are usually being used to belt a capot closed [78]. Sashes were woven in a wide variety of patterns, ranging from a simple chevron to more elaborate 'arrow' and 'flame' motifs, and were sometimes embellished with small white beads. For more information on voyageur sashes, and instructions on how to weave one, see 'Ceinture Fléchée: Making a Voyageur Sash', in Northwest Journal vol. VI, pp. 1-5.

Towards 1821, there are some indications that suspenders were sometimes worn by voyageurs [79].

Trousers & Breeches

In 1801, the North West Company supplied one pair of trousers to pork-eaters, and two pairs to winterers [80]. An 1806 dictionary defines trousers as 'breeches ; long breeches ; pantaloons' [81], which makes it unclear whether the 'trousers' mentioned in fur trade journals and inventories are trousers or breeches. One of the biggest changes in men's clothing between 1774 and 1821 was the shift from knee-length breeches to ankle-length trousers. When did this shift affect the Canadian habitants from whom the voyageurs were recruited? Sketches of Canadians and voyageurs help to clear up this point. George Heriot's paintings of Canadians in 1801 show most men wearing breeches [82]; in 1806, two Heriot paintings show more men wearing trousers, but some are still in breeches [83]. An 1806 painting by John Lambert shows a Quebec farmer wearing trousers as part of his summer clothes [84]. Artists' depictions of voyageurs from 1819 onward show them wearing trousers only [85].

What were these trousers made from? A wide variety of materials and colors were likely used. Cloth trousers were quite common. A 1786 inventory of the NWC's Athabasca post included one pair of cotton trousers [86]. A NWC order form used for 1807 and 1808 supplies included Russia sheeting trousers [87], and in 1807-1808, a voyageur received a pair of 'fine cord trousers' as part of his NWC-supplied clothing [88]. David Thompson took three pairs of fine cloth trousers over the Athabasca Pass in the winter of 1810-1811 [89]. For the HBC's 1821-1822 Athabasca outfit, George Simpson requested 67 pairs blue cloth trousers, 61 pairs olive cord trousers, 59 pairs drab cord trousers, 48 pairs striped cotton trousers, 45 pairs fine cloth trousers, 40 pairs duck trousers, 21 pairs striped Nankeen trousers, 23 pairs buff Nankeen trousers, 19 pairs drab Nankeen trousers, and 19 pairs drab jean trousers, for a total of 402 pairs cloth trousers [90]! Leather trousers were made in the Northwest [91].

Voyageur trousers had a wide range of colors, but blue seems to have been quite common ; in one painting, the artist shows voyageurs in trousers of navy blue, dark blue, indigo blue, and medium blue, as well as yellow and light yellowish brown (possibly leather) [92].

Breechcloths & Leggings

By 1806, NWC policy had changed ; voyageurs were issued a breechcloth and leggins instead of trousers [93], but it seems that trousers were still provided to voyageurs who wanted them [94]. I don't know whether this was an experiment or a permanent change in policy.

Breechcloths (also called brayettes or braillets) and leggins had been carried by the NWC as trade goods as early as 1786 [95], and many voyageurs bought them from the company [96]. A breechcloth is a narrow strip of cloth which is passed between the legs, and secured at the waist in front and behind by a narrow belt. Leggins (leggings) were a kind of footless sock made from cloth or leather, worn by voyageurs and by Natives. Leggins reach at least from the ankle to the knee, and might extend as far as the top of the thigh. Short leggins are held up with a garter tied above or below the knee, while the top of long leggins are usually secured to a belt around the waist.

The NWC traded cloth leggins to Natives long before they became part of voyageurs' company-supplied equipment ; two pairs of 'Molton' leggins were among the trade goods left at the NWC's Athabasca post on May 8, 1786 [97]. In the winter of 1803-1804, XY Company trader Michel Curot traded at least 8 pairs of leggins to Natives [98], and in the same year, leggins are a small part of F.-A. Larocque's trade goods [99]. In 1821, George Simpson requested 6 pairs each of white and olive leggins, and 12 pairs scarlet leggins, for the Peace River district [100].

David Thompson noted that when canoeing, 'We were always naked below the belt, on account of the rapids...that is, we were in the water, with our hands grasping the canoes, and leading it down the rapids' [101]. For this reason, voyageurs may have found breechcloths and leggins more convenient than trousers. Leggins could have been pulled on in the canoe, to warm up cold, wet legs on a chilly May morning, then taken off once the sun came out, and pulled on again at a portage to protect voyageurs' legs from branches, mosquitoes, and sunburn.

Socks & Stockings

George Back noted that 'stockings are not generally worn' by voyageurs, although cotton and worsted stockings do appear on a few inventory lists [102]. Instead of knee-length knit stockings, he noted that voyageurs wore moccasins with 'a pair of blanket socks…two pair of socks are used with snow shoes...' [103] David Thompson's memoirs also mention blanket socks [104]. Blanket socks were usually sewn when they were needed, rather than brought from Montreal ready-made [105].

Shoes & Moccasins

Voyageurs usually wore moccasins made by the Native and Mixed-Blood 'country wives' of fur traders and voyageurs. There are few detailed descriptions of these shoes, but naval midshipman George Back did describe the moccasins worn at Fort Chipewyan in 1820.

'the shoes worn here are of Indian construction and differ widely from English)--they are made of the scraped and smoked skin of the Elk [moose] or Deer [caribou] and tie with a foot or two of thongs round the ankle--...they are spongy and saturated with the least moisture but...you adjust and it is a general opinion that with a pair of blanket socks...they are the most comfortable things ever worn...' [106]

The women prepared the shoe leather as well as sewing the shoes ; moose leather moccasins were quite common, followed by buffalo and caribou [107]. There were both summer and winter moccasins [108]; although the difference is not described, winter moccasins were probably knee- or calf-length, and summer moccasins were ankle-length.

Moccasins were also worn back east. From 1791 to 1828, a Grimsby, Ontario merchant sold many pairs of moccasins which he had traded from the Indians [109]. In Lower Canada (Quebec), 'beef shoes' (souliers de bouef, souliers sauvages) had been worn since the 17th century [110]. These shoes were similar to the boot-style moccasins described by Back, but were made by the Canadian habitants. It is possible that voyageurs made beef shoes when they were in the Northwest, but I have yet to find any clear evidence of this.

European-style shoes may also have been worn by voyageurs. A number of shoe buckles dating to c. 1800 were excavated from a North West Company fur post [111], and 'ox hide shoes' are mentioned on NWC inventory lists from 1786 and 1806 [112].

Some Fashion Accessories & Afterthoughts

Clothes alone do not make the man. To give a full impression of what voyageurs looked like, let's turn to some other things which gave voyageurs a characteristic appearance.

Voyageurs were very fond of smoking ; their annual equipment often included three or more 'carrots' of tobacco (small 2- to 5-lb. packages), which they smoked with a clay pipe. Voyageurs also made stone pipes ; excavations of North West Company fur posts often turn up pipes of the so-called 'Micmac' style, made from soapstone, catlinite, siltstone, or pipestone [113]. These pipes had a round acorn-shaped bowl on a stepped square, round, or keel-shaped base. Smoking bags are occasionally mentioned, but not described. They may have been made of quilled or beaded leather for the voyageurs by their country wives.

Trade silver brooches, earrings, and crosses may have been worn by voyageurs, since they were used as trade goods all across the Northwest [114]. Silver and brass finger rings were also brought in by the hundreds for trading with Natives. They traded both plain bands and rings set with one or three glass 'stones'.

Some voyageurs were marked with tattoos and scars. Although I have found records of voyageurs getting tattooed during their time in the Northwest, I have yet to find any information on what these tattoos looked like [115]. They may have been Native-inspired, drawn from European tattoo traditions, or unique to the voyageurs. Scars could be caused by all sorts of injuries. Scars on the arms could suggest that the man had been bled for medical purposes ; scars on the knees would indicate a treatment for 'mal de raquette', the intense pain caused by intense snowshoeing.

There are a few other points to discuss regarding voyageurs' bodies. Although it may be true that most voyageurs were short (5'4" to 5'8"), so that they didn't take up much room in the canoe [116], I haven't found any clear evidence that this was the case during the 1774-1821 time period. In fact, voyageur Bazil Lucie was reportedly 6' 3" [117]. Although the majority of voyageurs were French-Canadian, there were also Native (primarily Iroquois, Huron, Cree, and Ojibway) and Mixed-Blood voyageurs. There was also a small number of Blacks and Hawaiians [118,119].

Finally, don't forget that voyageurs supplied their own paddles ; milieux had short paddles (two feet long by three inches wide), while the avant and gouvernail, in the bow and stern of the canoe, had longer, wider paddles to enable them to paddle standing up. Voyageurs also had iron-tipped setting poles to help pole the canoe upstream if practical. Using paddles and poles for props may help reenactors bring to life the voyageurs' very active, very dangerous occupation.

Glossary

buff - dull, light yellow ; light brownish yellow

calico - cotton cloth, usually printed

drab - a kind of hemp, linen, or wool cloth ; also, color of undyed, unbleached cloth

jean - twilled cotton cloth.

Nankeen - a kind of yellow cotton cloth

parti-colored - multi-colored.

Russia sheeting - twilled linen cloth, used for tents and clothing

swansdown - a type of soft thick close woolen cloth; also, cotton flannel

swanskin - a fine thick kind of flannel

toque -a knitted cap

voyaguer – someone, usually of French-Canadian descent, hired to paddle canoes for the fur trade.

worsted - wool yarn or cloth.

Notes

[1] Nelson, 5

[2] Mackenzie, 83-84

[3] Innis, 240n; Wallace, 213

[4] Henry (the Elder), 35

[5] Thompson, Narrative, 40

[6] John Halkett, 'Canot de Maitre', 1822; see the voyageur in the first seat. In Gilman, 71, 44; Newman, Illustrated, 112; Manitoba Museum of Man & Nature—Hudson's Bay Digital Collection at www.schoolnet.ca/collections/hbc /catex9c2.htm).

[7] Duckworth, 116; Thompson, Columbia, 255-257; Wood & Thiessen, 324

[8] Dempsey, 'Rocky', 37-41

[9] Duckworth, 117-118

[10] Simpson, 144-145

[11] Gilgun, 261

[12] Peter Rindisbacher, 'Two of the Companies Officers Travelling in a Canoe Made of Birchbark Manned by Canadians'. Third row, port side. In Josephy, 41.

[13] Halkett, 'Canot de Maitre'.  Seventh row, port side.

[14] Cox, 357

[15] Duckworth, 120-122

[16] McGillivray, 33

[17] Halkett, 'Canot de Maitre'. Bowman.

[18] Halkett, 'Canot de Maitre'. Second row, starboard side; see also Capt. Basil Hill's 'Canadian Voyageurs in Captain Franklin's Canoe', in Newman, Illustrated, 112.

[19] Rindisbacher, 'Two of the Companies Officers…'

[20] Nicholas Montour's medal, in Newman, Caesars, 14. James McGill's medal, in Durnford, 142; William McGillivray's medal, in Dempsey, Treasures, 70.

[21] George Back, 'Broaching to, — Canoes crossing Melville Sound', in Back, Fig 13

[22] Dempsey, 'Rocky', 36. These hats may have been meant mainly as gifts for Natives, however ; see Henry (the Younger), I:26, II:747-748

[23] Dempsey, 'Rocky', 37-41

[24] Franchère, 4-5

[25] Nute, 17

[26] Nute, 73

[27] Henry (the Younger), I:26, II:747-748; A. Johnson, 278, 282

[28] Thompson, Columbia, 255

[29] Simpson, 144-145

[30] Simpson, 152-153

[31] Masson, I:86

[32] Thorner, 155, quoting Lambert.

[33] 'Minuets des Canadiens', c. 1801, in Finley, 53 ; 'La Danse Ronde a l'Interieur', c. 1801, in Finley, 111 ; 'Minuets of the Canadians', 1807, in Brown, 249, and Hannon, 109 ; 'La Danse Ronde--Circular Dance of the Canadians', 1807, in Brown, 248, and Hannon, 102.

[34] Back, 132

[35] Nute, 73

[36] Halkett, 'Canot de Maitre'.

[37] The bearded fiddler in George Heriot's painting 'La danse ronde à l'interieur' c. 1801, in Finley, 111

[38] Cox, 358 ; my italics

[39] Cox, 357

[40]Dempsey, 'Rocky', 36, 39 ; Thompson, Columbia, 255-257

[41]Simpson, 152-153

[42] Duckworth, 116, 120-122

[43]Chaboillez, 287

[44] Masson II:377

[45]Dempsey, 'Rocky', 36

[46]Dempsey, 'Rocky', 40

[47]Thompson, Columbia, 255-257

[48]Henry (the Younger), II:668

[49]Cox, 357

[50]Simpson, 160-161

[51]Cox, 357

[52] Wood & Thiessen, 242

[53] Thompson, Columbia, 240

[54] Hill, 'Canadian Voyageurs in Captain Franklin's Canoe', in Newman, Illustrated, 112.

[55]Halkett, 'Canot de Maitre'

[56]Simpson, 164-165

[57]Henry (the Younger), I:159

[58]Atwood, 79

[59]Wood & Thiessen, 242, 285

[60] Thompson, Columbia, 102

[61]Simpson, 152-153

[62]Cox, 357

[63]Thompson, Columbia, 97 ; Back, 191

[64]Thompson, Columbia, 240

[65] Back, Fig. 5, fig. 13 ; Hood, plate 22 ; Halkett, 'Canot de Maitre'

[66] Thompson, Narrative, 40 ; Thorner, 155, quoting Lambert.

[67]Halkett 'Canot de Maitre' ; Hill, 'Canadian Voyageurs in Captain Franklin's Canoe'

[68]Mackenzie, 436 ; Gates, 154

[69]Back, 184; Masson, II:213

[70]Back, 103 ; Thompson, Narrative, 31

[71]S. Johnson, 317, 471

[72]Richards, William. 'A man & his Wife returning with a load of Partridges from their Tent', in Newman, Illustrated, 73 ; G. Williams, 69 ; Van Kirk, 74 ; Gilman, 86. Rindisbacher, Peter. 'Winter Fishing on the Ice of the Assiniboine and Red Rivers, 1821', in Ray, opposite p. 143

[73]Thompson, Narrative, 31

[74] Barbeau, 20

[75]Gates, 159, 159n

[76]Cox, 357

[77]Wood & Thiessen, 324 ; Dempsey, 'Rocky', 37-41 ; Simpson, 142

[78] Halkett, 'Canot de Maitre' ; Hill, 'Canadian Voyageurs in Captain Franklin's Canoe' ; Rindisbacher, 'Two of the Companies Officers...'; Back, 'Broaching to, —Canoes crossing Melville Sound'.

[79]Simpson, 142 ; Robert Hood, 'Trout Falls and Portage Sept 1819', in Hood, Plate 19

[80] Mackenzie, 83-84

[81] S. Johnson, 760

[82] Heriot, 'La danse ronde à l'interieur', c. 1801

[83] Hannon, 102, 109

[84] John Lambert's painting, 'Habitants in their Summer Dress', 1806-1807, in Atwood, 79; Lambert, **

[85] Robert Hood, 'Trout Falls and Portage Sept 1819', in Hood, Plate 19 ; 'Fort Enterprize Sept 1820', in Hood, Plate 22 ; Hill, 'Canadian Voyageurs in Captain Franklin's Canoe'

[86] Duckworth, 116

[87]Dempsey, 'Rocky', 37-41

[88]Thompson, Columbia, 240

[89]Thompson, Columbia, 255-257

[90]Simpson, 162-163

[91]Cox, 357 ; Wood & Thiessen, 128 ; Henry (the Younger), I:137 ; Back, 183

[92]Rindisbacher, 'Two of the Companies Officers…'

[93]Innis, 240n

[94]Thompson, Columbia, 240

[95]Duckworth, 116, 124

[96]Duckworth, 26n, 26, 36, 38, 99

[97] Duckworth, 116 ; see also Duckworth, 117-118, 124

[98] Curot, 416, 425, 429, 430, 451, 461, 462

[99] Wood & Thiessen, 66, 147.

[100] Simpson, 154

[101]Thompson, Narrative, 117

[102]Thompson, Columbia, 255-257 ; Simpson, 162-163

[103]Back, 314

[104]Thompson, Narrative, 68

[105]Tyrrell, 495 ; Back, 191

[106] Back, 314 ; ellipsis in original

[107]Henry (the Younger) II:515 ; Back, 11

[108] Simpson, 278; Back, 333

[109]Burnham & Burnham, 61

[110]Beaudoin-Ross, 73

[111]Kidd, 163-164, 190, 191; see also Wheeler et. al., 68, 87

[112]Duckworth, 120-122 ; Dempsey, 'Rocky', 36. These shoes may have been 'beef shoes'.

[113]Burley, Hamilton, & Fladmark, 121-123 ; Kidd, 153-158

[114]Burley, Hamilton, & Fladmark, 124

[115]Gates, 154, 178; Nute, 17

[116] Nute, 14

[117] Cox, 187

[118] Henry (the Younger) I:46, 46n; Curot, 420, 439; Simpson, 112, 188, 290

[119] Thompson, Columbia,173, 283, 288

 

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